Julian Of Norwich

During the pandemic, being isolated and shut in for months, I began to realize what the life of an anchoress must have been like! By focusing on my prayer life and the practice of icon writing, I have been able to draw near to God more frequently and with greater concentration experience the silence of my heart than would otherwise have been possible. For that reason, I have begun writing an icon of Julian of Norwich with great joy and received many discoveries in the process. I share with you here some of what I have learned about her.

My Julian of Norwich Icon- work in progress!

Born in 1343, Julian lived in the wake of the black plague and lived as well, through the peasant’s rebellion of 1381, and the persecution of the Lollards. May 8 is the Day Dame Julian is remembered in the Church of England, the Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church. She lived a life of seclusion as an anchoress at the Church of St. Julian in Norwich, England for most of her adult life. Through a window to the outside world in her cell, Julian was expected to be available to provide prayer and counsel to those living in the city of Norwich. Julian sought holiness of life and communion with God in order to be able to intercede more effectively for others. Aelred, the author of the Ancrene Riwle, a tract written in 1200 to guide anchorites and spiritual recluses, summarized the ideal anchoress’s prayer:

Embrace the whole world with the arms of your love and in that act at once consider and congratulate the good, contemplate and mourn over the wicked. In that act look upon the afflicted and the oppressed and feel compassion for them…In that act, call to mind the wretchedness of the poor , the groan of the orphans, the abandonment of widows, the gloom of the sorrowful, the needs of travelers, the prayers of virgins, the perils of those at sea, the temptation of monks, the responsibilities of prelates, the labors of those waging war. In your love take them all to your heart, weep over them, offer your prayers for them.”

Icon by Juliet Venter

After a serious illness, which she prayed to receive, Julian began seeing visions of God. These visions became the source of many “showings” that is, revelations given by God to Julian. The following are some excerpts from these visions. As Julian gazed on the Crucifix, during what she thought was the end of her life, Julian received the first of her visions on the Trinity:

in the same revelation, suddenly the Trinity filled my heart full of the greatest joy, and I understood that it will be so in heaven without end to all who will come here. For the Trinity is God, God is the Trinity. The Trinity is our maker, the Trinity is our protector, the Trinity is our everlasting lover, the Trinity is our endless joy and our bliss, by our Lord Jesus Christ and inner Lord Jesus Christ.”

And I leave you with her most famous quote: “Jesus answered with these words, saying: ‘All shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well.’ … This was said so tenderly, without blame of any kind toward me or anybody else”.

Excerpts from Grace Jantzen’s “Julian of Norwich” are quoted above.

Blessings,

Christine Simoneau Hales

New Christian Icons

Origin of Icons

The early Christians wished to decorate their catacombs with paintings, and these became our earliest form of Christian Iconography.  They used symbolism, often taken from paganism, and Roman and Greek motifs- but the symbolism was given new meanings: Christian meanings.

Catacombs were underground passageways used for burial chambers during the Roman Empire.  All Roman catacombs were located outside city walls since it was illegal to bury a dead body within the city, providing “a place…where the tombs of the martyrs could be openly marked, ” and commemorative services and feasts held safely on sacred days.

Coptic Icon of Christ and Saint Means, Sixth Century
Coptic Icon of Christ and Saint Menas, Sixth Century

Memorial Portraits

Citizens of Roman Egypt memorialized their dead by  using wax and pigments to paint on wood panels portraits of their dead. These were placed  on mummies at the time of burial. The style of the painting was Greco-Roman but they reflected Egyptian religious beliefs. For the first six centuries, Icon painting followed that tradition.

Fayum Portrait, Egypt

The style of painting that they copied was similar to popular painting of the late Roman empire.  Often Christian artists of the time used animals such as the fish, the lamb, the drinking stag, the peacock and the dove to convey Christian meanings.

Old Testament and the Gospel as Inspiration for Icons

The Old Testament appeared infrequently in the catacombs, but gradually with the spread of Holy Texts and the understanding that the Old Testament stories prefigured the Gospel, those Biblical themes began to inspire icon painters.  Motifs  such as the salvation of the soul, or Divine Mercy were depicted in scenes like Daniel in the lion’s den, the life of Moses, Jonah and the Whale, the sacrifice of Isaac, Noah’s ark, among others.

Moses Being Found by the River, Fresco
Daniel in The Lion’s Den Icon C. Hales

By the second century, knowledge of the Gospels was becoming more widespread, so images from the life of Christ began to emerge.  Favorite images were the adoration of the Magi, the Baptism of Jesus, the Resurrection of Lazarus and the healing of the paralytic. The simple image of the Madonna and Child was seen as early as the 2nd Century.

6th Century Icon from Mt. Sinai, Egypt

Third century saw the Roman Empire under attack from the East, but it survived and moved its capital to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) in 330 AD.  One Constantine legalized Christianity in 313, and made it the official imperial religion, Icons and religious imagery proliferated.

Tapestry 6th Century

THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople. The Byzantine era flourished until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1453.

Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from  ancient Rome insofar as it was centered on Constantinople and open to Eastern influences. Byzantium was also oriented towards the Greek rather than Latin culture.

Saint Peter Encaustic Icon, 6th Century

It was during the Seventh Ecumenical Council, 787 AD, that the Church Fathers declared Icons to be called sacred objects and full of grace. According to St. John of Damascus, an icon is sanctified by the name of God, and by the name of the friends of God, that is, the saints, and that is why the icon receives the grace of the Divine Spirit.

This is an account of how Icons began in the early Centuries. The period following the sixth century saw turbulence and widespread destruction of Icons and that is why we have so few early Icons existing today.

I hope this article proves helpful and gives perspective that aids Iconographers today.

Until next month, be blessed , safe and healthy.

Christine Simoneau Hales

Icon Website Online Icon Classes

Icons as Memorial Portraits

Greetings:

The very first Christian Icons were memorial portraits from the Catacombs immediately following the Resurrection and continuing for three hundred years.  They were created to keep alive the memory of the early Christian martyrs.  Until Emperor Constantine legalized Christianity in 313, Christians had to hide their faith or risk death or persecution.  Memorial portraits Saints

For the early Christians, it was the memorial image that made the unseen world of their faith live in reality.  The martyrs became  invisible, but constant companions through portraiture and symbolism in the early icons.

Fayum portrait
Fayum portrait

Fayum Portraits

The Byzantine system of sacred portraiture and narrative derives, in part, from the stylistic influences of the Egyptian Fayum period.   A certain standardization of facial features in sixth century icons of Byzantine Saints developed that bears a striking resemblance to the Fayum portraits of the first and second centuries.

Some of the earliest surviving icons of Mary and the saints are from wall paintings and mosaics after the sixth century. The most common subjects of  early memorial portraits were Christ, Mary, saints and angels.

Fayum Portrait

After the period of  iconoclasm, Byzantine portraits of saints began to place more emphasis on the functions and status of the saints depicted in addition to attempting a physical likeness. First, these distinctions were made, for the lesser saints, with words and inscriptions.  Later, visual images symbolically represented status and function, but naming of the icon was still an important element visually.   It allowed the viewer to “read” the icon and know exactly who the icon was honoring.

Saint Peter
Saint Peter

Christian Legend

Early Christian legend has Saint Luke as the first Icon painter, as he was commissioned to paint a portrait of Mary and the Christ Child.  This Icon of the Mother of God is called the Hodegetria.

Hodegetria

A fourth century legend speaks of King Agbar who, in need of healing, had sent his messenger to Christ asking for an audience.  When Jesus was unable to go, He put His face to the cloth and Christ’s image was miraculously transferred to the cloth. The messenger brought this image to the King who was instantly healed.  This legend is attributed to the Mandylion Icon.

Holy Face of Christ Icon written by Christine Hales
Holy Face of Christ Icon written by Christine Hales

Acheiropoieta refers to the holy image that appeared miraculously, as in the case of the Mandylion and also to the Icon of  Veronica’s veil.  This type of icon is thought of as a true image, not made by human hands.

From the sixth century onwards, Icons began to be venerated in the church and  some were  believed to be miracle working images, validating and inspiring the faith of the early Christians.

Comnenian Period

During the Comnenian period, 1081-1185, icons proliferated as murals and mosaics as well as panel paintings for the Iconostasis. Similarly, the Paleologan period, c.1261 saw the flowering of many iconographic mosaics and murals commemorating the saints and the Gospel narrative.

Russian Byzantine Icons

Christ by Andrei Rublev
Christ by Andrei Rublev

Typically painted on wood, Russian Byzantine Icon portraits tend to emphasize the mystical connection between the saint and God. This is achieved through a softer, more diffused portrait with less sharp or hard edges than other styles. Two of Russia’s most famous iconographers, Andrei Rublev and Dionysius, not only continued the previous Byzantine Iconographic tradition, but they also were able to creatively add subtleties and nuances to it that appealed greatly to the people of their time.

Memorial Portraits

In the words of Egon Sendler, ” Icons are images of the Invisible”.  They are memorial portraits that capture visually for us the memories of  the saints who went before us.  They hint at their accomplishments, the intensity of the saints’ connection to God and His Gospel through symbols, words and pictures.

Our Lady of Czestochowska
Our Lady of Czestochowska

Making the invisible world of our faith visible has never been more important.  Our world and culture are crying out for vision, a perspective, that will help to make sense of the chaos.  May God inspire each of us, in the individual way He has for each of us, to reach out and make His world visible and accessible to our loved ones, our neighbors and our world.

During this Covid isolation period, I am offering my icon painting classes online.  Click here if you’d like to see a schedule.

May God continue to bless you and keep you, and bless the work of your hands.

Christine Hales

www.newchristianicons.com

Please contact me if you’d like to write an article for the American Association of Iconographers.  We would like to hear about your Icon painting practice and the effect icons have on your community.

 

 

 

Contemplation and Icons

Hello Fellow Iconographers:

This month the topic of our newsletter is contemplation and Icons.  As I continue teaching Icon writing (painting), now online due to the pandemic, it seems important to post about the importance of linking prayer to the process of painting Icons.  In order for the Icon to reflect God’s Presence, it’s very important for the iconographer to be in a state of grace and prayer while working.

Icon Class at Holy Cross
Icon Class at Holy Cross

Reflection on the saints being being painted and continuous prayer help to insure that the icon is an authentic expression of who the saint is when transfigured by God’s grace.  This is the true likeness of the saint- his transfigured person through the light of God’s action upon him/her in their lives.

In The Eastern theological tradition, man is seen to be on a mystical journey that leads to “Theosis” or deification. Icons represent this union between God and man. The Icon is a manifestation of the presence of God. It draws and brings us into this Presence so that we can experience God in our soul. In this way we become a living icon of God.

Contemplation and Icons

Face of Christ Icon written by C.Hales
Face of Christ Icon written by C.Hales

In Byzantine religious culture,  the purpose of meditation, prayer and contemplation  was always to lead to enlightenment, that is, prayerful immersion in the rays of Divine energy as evidenced in the icon of the Transfiguration.

In Vita Consecrata we read this from Pope John Paul II,  :
We must confess that we all have need of this silence, filled with the presence of him who is adored : in theology, so as to exploit fully its own sapiential and spiritual soul; in prayer, so that we may never forget that seeing God means coming down the mountain with a face so radiant that we are obliged to cover it with a veil (Ex 34.33); in commitment, so that we will refuse to be locked in a struggle without love and forgiveness. All, believers and non-believers alike, need to learn a silence that allows the other to speak when and how he wishes, and allows us to understand his words”

St Benedict Icon by Christine Hales
St Benedict Icon by Christine Hales

Whereas St. Benedict, who has set the tone for the spirituality of the West, calls us, first of all, to listen, the Byzantine Fathers focus on gazing. This is especially evident in the liturgical life of the Eastern Church as the 2nd Ecumenical council in 787 makes clear, when it says :
“What is communicated through the Word is revealed silently through the Image.” In Byzantine Liturgy therefore, Word and Icon complement each other.

Each of us is an Icon of God, and through prayer and contemplation, we are able to see our brothers and sisters as God sees them, and then bring this deep sense of God’s view to the process of painting Icons.

Hesychasm is a mystical form of prayer practiced by Byzantine Monks and iconographers of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Jesus‘s teaching in the Gospel of Matthew tells us that “whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you”. Hesychasm in tradition has been the process of retiring inward  in order to achieve an experiential knowledge of God. The Jesus prayer, prayer of the breath, was commonly the prayer used when painting icons in this tradition.

Transfiguration Icon
Transfiguration Icon

The Jesus prayer is this, or a variation of it: “Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me.”

And to finish, here is a quote from “The Message”, a treatise from fifteenth century St. Joseph of Volokolamsk:

“Wherever you may be, O Beloved, on sea or on land, at home, walking, sitting, or lying down- ceaselessly pray with a clear conscience, saying, “Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me,” and God will hear you.”

Equipped with prayer and contemplation, the iconographer is able to paint with God’s direction and all will be well!

Saint Marina Icon
Paleologic Icon of Saint Marina

Contact Us:

Each month, we choose a topic relevant to the education of contemporary iconographers, and I invite you to make suggestions, submit possible topics, or write a guest post. Contact me!

ONLINE ICON PAINTING ClASSES

I have two on line Icon painting classes coming up in September and November, you are welcome to join us!

Blessings and prayers until next month,

Christine Hales

www.newchristianicons.com

Saint Raphael

Dear Iconographers:

Raphael
Raphael

During this time of pandemic it’s good to think about Icons of healing and restoration.  There are many that come to mind, but Saint Raphael seems particularly appropriate as he is the patron saint not only of travelers, but also of physicians, nurses, and medical workers.  For this reason, I am offering an online icon painting class in September where we will write an Icon of Archangel Raphael.  His feast day is September 29, and is celebrated along with Saints Michael and Archangel Gabriel.

The story of Archangel Raphael is beautifully told in the book of Tobit in the Apocrypha.  Raphael means God heals.  In the book of Enoch he is believed to have healed the earth when it was defiled by the sins of fallen angels.   In John 5: 1-4, the Gospel speaks of the pool at Bethesda where many sick people gathered, awaiting the movement of the waters.  “An angel of the Lord descended at certain times into the pond and the water was moved.  And he that went down first into the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he was under.” Because of the healing powers associated with Raphael, he is considered to be the angel in that Scriptural story.

Archangel Raphael
Archangel Raphael

In the book of Tobit, Raphael appears in the form of a man who will accompany Tobias on a journey.  To the recently blinded Tobit (Tobias’ father) Raphael says, “Take courage, the time is near for God to heal you.  Take Courage” Tobit 5:10.

The Archangel Raphael
The Archangel Raphael

During the journey, Raphael heals Sarah of the demons that plagued her so that she could safely marry Tobias.  Tobit is also healed of his blindness by Raphael.  When Raphael finally reveals his identity as an angel of God the two men were afraid and fell down, but Raphael said to them ” Do not be afraid, peace be with you. Bless God forevermore…I was not acting by my own will but by the will of God.  Bless Him each and every day and sing His praises….. They kept blessing God and singing His praises and they acknowledged God for these marvelous deeds of His, when an angel of the Lord had appeared to them.” Tobit 12:16

In this story and also in the meaning  of the name Raphael, credit is given to God who heals, and it is to God that the angels and the saints point and direct our worship and attention.

Raphael is thought to guard travelers on their journeys and is sometimes depicted with a staff and also holding  fish which relates to the healing of Tobit’s blindness with fish gall as directed by Raphael. In Europe Raphael is known as the protector of sailors and is shown in a relief on the Doge’s palace in Venice with a scroll saying “Keep the Gulf quiet.”

Rembrandt
Rembrandt

Raphael is sometimes thought of being one of the three angels who visited Sarah and Abraham. He, along with Archangels Michael and Gabriel were sent to fulfill  God’s will concerning Sodom, Sarah and Abraham.

 

Trinity
Trinity

Flannery O’Connor is believed to have said the Saint Raphael prayer at the beginning of each day:

“O Raphael, lead us toward those we are waiting for, those who are waiting for us; Raphael, Angel of happy meeting, lead us by the hand toward those we are looking for.  May all our movements be guided by Your light and transfigured with your joy.” Amen

During these difficult times of pandemic, let us pray often for those afflicted and for all those doctors, nurses and medical workers who are at the front lines of this battle.  And we pray also for the speedy discovery of a vaccine cure, in Jesus name, Amen.

Christine Hales

Christine’s Icon Website

Christine’s Icon Classes

 

 

 

An American School of Iconography

Greetings Fellow Iconographers:

Last Supper, School of A. Rublev
Last Supper, School of A. Rublev

This month I wanted to write about the idea of an American School of Iconographers.  Not a brick and mortar school, but a school in the Benedictine sense of a community of people who share values, beliefs, and common goals.  A school of people  who desire to learn from and support each other in the goal of painting Icons would , ideally, be comprised of diversity as well as commonality.

One of the tenets in the Iconographer’s Rules  that we all learn when starting to write Icons is “Never forget the joy of spreading icons throughout the world.”  Although Icon painting is often a solitary process, joining together in classes can help combat the undesirable effects of isolation and promote growth and learning.

Mother of God Hodegitria
Mother of God Hodegitria

Recently, during the stay at- home -order due to the corona virus, several online Icon classes have sprung up, and I suspect that we will see a lot more of these in the future. Will these replace the onsite icon classes taught by iconographers at colleges and monasteries?  No.  Live, in-person classes provide an opportunity for feedback, practice, and personal remedial direction, and that works hand in hand with on line classes at other times during the year.  The on line classes provide an ongoing way to practice drawing and painting that make the in person classes a valuable source of individual instruction.

Writing Icons is no simple task, as most of you have discovered.  Initially, a novice Iconographer is encouraged to copy Icons from before the sixteenth century.  This usually involves tracing the Icon, then transferring the image to a board and painting.  However, after a few years of this kind of practice, one can move on to learning to draw iconographically.  Drawing icons freehand, and learning the basics of sacred geometry composition are tasks for intermediate level iconographers.  Color theory comes next, along with practice, practice, practice.  It’s good to practice on watercolor paper, do studies, learn how to draw garments, and hands.  Then, drawing the face, understanding dynamic symmetry and theology of icons are tasks for advanced Icon classes.

Seraphim Drawing
Seraphim Drawing

There’s always so much to learn and it’s exciting to have such rich subject matter to explore.  When you add all this to the joy of growing closer to God through prayer, contemplation, and icon writing you have an absorbing and life giving practice.

Nun Juliana, Saint Peter Drawing
Nun Juliana, Saint Peter Drawing

Being an active member of a Church and faith community is essential to writing icons also.  Since God, theology and art are so intertwined in this process, it is important to have a spiritual director with whom to ponder and question how God wants to use this art form through your work.  Iconographers need to have an active prayer life and understand how Icons are used in contemplation and liturgy.

Nun Juliana Icon
Nun Juliana Icon

The American Association of Iconographers is a free association of Iconographers who share a common desire to be supportive to each other and grow in faith and icon writing.  We have a Face Book Group ( just search for American Association of Iconographers on Face Book) which you can join.  Anyone who is a member can post their ideas, questions, useful links, etc.  Because it is an Ecumenical group, we practice acceptance of both Orthodox and non Orthodox Iconography.  We usually don’t publicize or promote individual Iconographers’ classes, but instructional video links are acceptable for posting.

It Takes Time to Develop

There have been many developments and changes to the world, as well as to the world of Iconography over the last twenty years.  Similarly, it will take time to develop characteristics, attributes, and a standard for excellence in this field.

It will be helpful to see visual examples and hear of other Iconographers’ experiences in their locations regarding community, learning, creating a standard for quality and relevance.   Perhaps in the future we could have a virtual conference or series of meetings to discuss these topics.  Also, writing blogs for this group can be a way to share experience and perspective.

So far, the guiding principles are: The creation of a spiritually healthy, ecumenical, support group that promotes the practice of Icon sharing, learning, and promoting the love of Icons that can provide direction and possibly regulate a  set of guidelines for future Iconographers.

Please feel free to use the contact form below with suggestions, ideas, and possible submissions for blog posts.

May God continue to bless you in all that you say and do,

Christine Hales

New Christian Icons.com

 

 

Medieval Russian Icons

Archangel Michael, 1300
Archangel Michael, 1300

MEDIEVAL RUSSIAN ICONS  11-17TH CENTURIES

In the creation of Icons today, I find it particularly helpful to keep looking to the past in order to understand the nuances and dynamics of Icon making through the centuries.  Medieval Russian Icons and their development  is particularly applicable to this task.  The following is excerpted from the book, A History of Icon Painting,  and this chapter was  written by Angelina Smirnova; Moscow, 2005.

St. Nicholas, late 12th Century, Moscow
St. Nicholas, late 12th Century, Moscow

Early Russian Christianity

Since the adoption by Russia of Christianity  in 988, Christian art was able to develop and flourish.  Particularly in the metropolitan areas like Moscow and Kiev, the foundation was laid for Christianity and its art to spread through Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine. While in these early centuries Icons were favored by Monks and used as devotional images in chapels, churches and monasteries.  They were very important inRussian Orthodoxy.
The first Russian icons were heavily influenced by Byzantine culture which formed the basis of knowledge concerning the canons and painting traditions of icons.

Our Lady Enthroned with Archangel Gabriel and St. Sergius of Radoneh, 15th Century
Our Lady Enthroned with Archangel Gabriel and St. Sergius of Radoneh, 15th Century

Wealthy princes and czars commissioned spacious churches that required large painted images, resulting in clearer silhouettes and pronounced rhythm and contours that could give a compositional unity.
The themes of overcoming suffering and the hope of salvation dominated the subject matter of these icons which laid the foundation for Andrei Rublev’s painting in the fifteenth century.
“The saints on Russian icons are often endowed with a particularly forceful expressiveness in which Christian spirituality clearly demonstrates the power of saints over the cosmic forces of nature.  The images on Russian icons are more open and direct compared with the refined intellectualism of Byzantine art, which drew more strongly on the Hellenistic tradition and was more remote from the sphere of everyday emotions.”

Prophet Elijah and scenes from His Life, 13th Century
Prophet Elijah and scenes from His Life, 13th Century

Comnenian Icons

The second half of the eleventh century Russian princes  built churches to establish their governments and required monumental icons to adorn them. Most of the themes repeated Byzantine icons but there were some original ones depicting the Russian saints, e.g. Boris and Gleb.

Sts. Boris and Gleb, late 14th Century, Novgorod
Sts. Boris and Gleb, late 14th Century, Novgorod

The Comnenian style, characterized by more muted expressions, light transparent colors, and the addition of a blue/azure color, developed in twelfth century Russia. By the thirteenth century, after the devastating effects of the Tartar-Mongol hordes, icons began to show expressions of strength, resolve, spiritual integrity and power.
A Russian style of icon painting  was becoming clearly evident by the thirteenth century.  In comparison with Byzantine art there was now a flatter picture plane and composition, rich color, and a more open yet inward  expression on the figures.  There were local exceptions, such as Novgorod, which retained a simplicity combined with vibrant colors.

Virgin Orans, Great Panagia, 1224, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Virgin Orans, Great Panagia, 1224, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow

Moscow Icons

As Moscow became the political and cultural center of Russia in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, a clearly defined style emerged.  Fifteenth century Russian icons represent the ideal heavenly world and God’s grace, in contrast to the fourteenth century icons which showed believers the steps to overcoming obstacles to spiritual development.  Now, ideal harmony was the theme of icons and that is perfectly expressed in Andrei Rublev’s Holy Trinity icon.  Rublev’s icons exemplify Byzantine classicism and seem to combine aspects of earlier styles of Russian icon painting in a mystical and beautiful way.  Later, Dionysius would elongate figures and open out towards the viewer, compositional elements and figures. (For more on Dionysius see earlier post on this blog site.)

Dormition, Dionysius, late 15th Century
Dormition, Dionysius, late 15th Century

The Paleologue period of Byzantine iconography, 1261-1453 continued to influence Russian Icons of the sixteenth century, but there was also  more of a theological-didactic narrative to these icons. A western influence began to be seen in the modeling of the faces and forms and a more naturalistic rendering of space.
I hope this brief history encapsulation is helpful to
iconographers of the twenty-first century who seek to maintain the canons of Iconography and also create religious art that relates to and inspires Christians today. 
A good source of images can be found in some of the digital libraries that are now being made public:
May God bless you with a sense of community as Iconographers, and bless you with health and grace.
Christine Hales, Iconographer/artist

Some Useful Iconography Links

Icon Books and more:  Kolomenskya Russian Icons

Icons and Their Interpretation– A blog which features articles about Icons

Christians In The Visual Arts: An international group of Christian artists

Face Book Group: American Association of Iconographers

The Transcendental Nature of Icons

The Transcendental Nature of Icons

This month, I wanted to share some reflections taken from reading the book, “The Avant-Garde Icon, Russian Avant-Garde Art & The Icon Painting Tradition, written by Andrew Spira.

ELijah and the Chariot of Fire Icon 14th Cent.
ELijah and the Chariot of Fire Icon 14th Cent.

Exploring the potential of icons in the context of the modern world, Andrew Spira speaks to the integration of the ancient spiritual truths found in Icons into modern culture. 

We are looking today at just the first chapter entitled “Icons: An Introduction”, particularly focusing on the development of the Russian iconographic tradition from the seventh to the sixteenth century.

Spira gives a brief history and explanation of the iconoclast controversy that I particularly appreciate due to the information about the widely spreading religion of Islam that was iconoclastic and therefore provided some of the impetus for the negation and destruction of icons in the seventh century.

Archangel Gabriel Icon, School of Dionysus, 1502
Archangel Gabriel Icon, School of Dionysus, 1502

During the iconoclastic controversy, an official theology of icons was developed maintaining that, by incarnating in matter as Christ, God established a principle that it was lawful and appropriate  to represent the Divine in material form.  Like the Eucharist, icons were regarded as extensions of the body of Christ.  It was their sacramentality that mattered, more than the artistic quality or their symbolic meaning. Therefore, The definitive characteristic of Icons lies within their mystical identity.

The effort to create a form of art that could communicate the mystery of the incarnate God took place within the Eastern church before the 10th century.

In 1453 the capital of Russia moved to Moscow from Constantinople after the fall of the Byzantine Empire.  Then, from a spiritual point of view, the monastic discipline of Hesychasm, an ancient practice of unceasing prayer, led to a period of religious fervor that resulted in an increase in the development and proliferation of Icons throughout the church.  Russian icon painting silently reveals God to the inner eye, or heart, of the believer.

St. Boris & St. Gleb with scenes from their life, late 14th century
St. Boris & St. Gleb with scenes from their life, late 14th century

The contrast between a rational, western, didactic approach and the more mystical, contemplative and sacramental approach to Icon writing is something that icon painters today have to come to terms with in order to develop an art that has its own artistic integrity and sacramental presence.  This contrast  can be seen not necessarily as  two polarities, right and wrong, but as both and, permitting a creative synthesis of the two approaches.

Modern Icon Painting

Although the influence of the western Renaissance in 16th century Russia was largely not experienced, there was still a disintegration of the medieval interrelationship between spiritual life and popular culture.  This was evident in modern Russian and Eastern Icons from the sixteenth century onwards.

Russian Icon circa 14th Century
Russian Icon circa 14th Century

In an attempt to change the course of Russian modern icon painting in the seventeenth century from secularization back to spiritual traditions,  attempts were made to formalize the pure tradition of icon painting. But these  undermined the principles of insight and experience that also formed the basis of the tradition.  This resulted in a westernized icon, realistic, narrative, and  in a lack of feeling and spiritual depth in the icons of modern periods.

Many post sixteenth century Icons reflect the lack of depth of feeling that is characteristic of the earlier icons due to rigid adherence to copying icons and focusing on technical skills as opposed to contemplation on theology and prayer.

It is the contemplative tradition that supports the practice and principles of Icon writing from within. This is the spirit of the tradition of icon painting as a sacramental medium for the transmission of the incarnate God to the world.

Angel Icon, Dionysus, 16th Century
Angel Icon, Dionysus, 16th Century

The contemplative awareness that is seen in the expressions of the saints in medieval icons calls for a corresponding orientation on the part of the viewer.

I hope this article has been informative and helpful.  It is my intention to present views that further the development of contemporary Icon writing and provide a sense of community by sharing my research, prayers, and work.

May you all be blessed and prosper in the art and spiritual discipline of Icon writing.

Christine Simoneau Hales

USEFUL ICON LINKS

Icon Boards     Traditional Icon Boards   

Icon Boards Icoane FB Page

Brushes         Dick Blick

Icon Classes 2020

Practice

Dear Fellow Iconographers:
Angel

Teaching Icon classes as I do in monasteries, churches and art centers, the question that always arises at the end of class:  How can I continue with Icon painting?  Practice is what I always say. For that reason, this month’s blog for the American Association of Iconographers is a collection of information and links to help with further studies.

Ideally, someone who is learning to write Icons will choose a style or a teacher which whom to study.  But even with that, one can only realistically take one or two workshops per year.  What to do in the meantime?  Here are my suggestions:

Practice

Using sketch paper and pencil, draw as much as possible.  Copy Icons from books, prints, or the internet.  Drawing is the number one art skill needed in Icon writing, as it is in all painting.  Learning to think on paper is a valuable skill.  A book that I recommend to beginners is: Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain by Betty Edwards.  You can copy Icons in some of her exercises and you will be surprised at how quickly your drawing will improve.

Raising of Lazarus Icon Sketch in Black and White Christine Hales
Raising of Lazarus Icon Sketch in Black and White.  Christine Hales

 

 

Simplified Palette
Simplified Palette

Use watercolor paper and the four basic color of Icon writing: red ochre, black, white and yellow ochre.  Make color and tonal studies of Icons on water color paper.  Again, this simple practice will yield large results.

 

 

John the Baptist watercolor sketch Christine Hales
John the Baptist watercolor sketch Christine Hales

 

Icon Retreats and Workshops

For those who choose to study with me, here is a link to upcoming classes.  My teaching method is always evolving and inspired by my prayer life.  I particularly enjoy helping students who have had some experience writing Icons and now want to create their own Icon (still copied from before the Renaissance).  If you do sign up for one of my classes and wish to do this, please email me well before the class date so that we can prepare you for getting the most out of the retreat.

Resources for viewing Iconographic Imagery

Kolomenskaya Versta is a site selling Icon books and materials. It is based in Russia and they regularly post free images to copy as well as links to all kinds of Iconographic information.  Also known as Russian Modern Orthodox Icon, here is a link to their FB page.

Online illuminated Manuscripts from  Open Culture.  Also, the Book of Kells on line.

A beautiful FB page with many good examples of Byzantine Icons- Byzantine Art

Museum of Russian Icons, 203 Union Street, Clinton, Mass.  There is an exhibition of Prosopon Icons currently in addition to their permanent collection.

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, Nikita Andrei
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, Nikita Andreiv

Resources for Icon Materials

Natural Pigments  They have pigments, red clay, gold leaf adhesives, brushes, etc..

Kremer Pigments has a shop in NYC but you can also order on linear an immense array of pigment choices and other materials like stand oil, linseed oil, etc.

Pandora- Pigment sets, Painting Tools, Porcelain Palette

Gold Leaf and Gilding Supplies

Sepp Leaf    www.seppleaf.com

Golden Leaf Products  www.goldenleafproducts.com

Gold Leaf Wholesalers  LA Gold

Icon Boards

Pandora Icon Boards, New York

St. John’s Workshop   Icon boards

 

Icon Painting Videos from You Tube

Villanova University– full process of painting an Icon.

Julia Brigit Hayes teaches online classes for drawing and painting Icons

Prosopon School of Iconology teaches workshops nationally. Another short video of their technique.

East X West online Icon Course with Sr. Petra offers many video tutorials and a thorough grounding in Iconographic history, drawing and painting.

That’s all for this month. Please let me know if this has helped you, and I wish you peace and  joy in spreading the beauty of Icons throughout the world!

Christine Hales

Icon Website 

Print Website

Fine Art Website

 

 

Training for Iconographers

Greetings Fellow Iconographers :

Training for Iconographers

St. Basil
St. Basil Icon by Christine Hales

This month I am recommending two articles that have been published in an on-line journal- The Orthodox Arts Journal– as elements contributing to  good training for Iconographers.  As I go around the country teaching an “Introduction to Icon Writing Class”, I am aware of how little knowledge people in general have about Icon painting.  It is impossible to gain enough knowledge of this art from a few classes to be able to make truly authentic Icons.  I recommend two things:  look at as much art and as many Icons as you possibly can. Books, online resources, museums, all of these will help your painting to become mature as you practice what you see.  The second thing I recommend is to read as much as you can about the history as well as the technique of Icon writing.   Both of these activities go hand in hand with taking workshops and practicing at home.

Two Articles for Iconographers in Training.

First Article

Mustard Seed Manual of Painting
Mustard Seed Manual of Painting

The first article is written by English Iconographer Aidan Hart and it is entitled, ” The Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting,: A Chinese Painting Manual Offers Inspiration to Iconographers.”  This article contains quotes from the Chinese manual as well as comments by Aidan Hart as to their usefulness for Iconographers.  It is quite a beautiful and clear article that speaks to some of the nuances of Icon painting.  Here is a quote from that article. The italics are quotes from the manual, and the regular text is Aidan Hart’s commentary:

“You must learn first to observe the rules faithfully; afterwards, modify them according to your intelligence and capacity. The end of all method is to seem to have no method. (17)

When we learn a second language, we consciously study its rules of grammar and learn its norms. But as we gain knowledge and confidence, we find our own voice. Iconography should be the same.

I have heard it said by some Orthodox thinkers that iconography is not art. I disagree. The icon is indeed more than art because it is part of the liturgy and exists for more than aesthetic delectation. But it is at least art. Although the icon’s sacred purpose means that its aesthetic categories are more extensive than those of secular art, it should nonetheless include them. The same universal colour theories and composition principles apply.”

One more quote:

“If you aim to dispense with method, learn method. If you aim at facility, work hard. If you aim for simplicity, master complexity.(19)

Hard work is the only path to the authentic abstraction. In the years that I have taught iconography I have found that drapery is the most common stumbling block for learners. Prolonged and analytical study is required to understand the drapery that the icon tradition abstracts. Drapery’s complexity needs to be mastered in order to make sense of its simplification, otherwise it becomes irrational, not supra-rational. Lines need to be understood as horizons of forms and not strings hanging in space.

Here is the link for the entire article.  Enjoy!

Anton Daineko
Anton Daineko

The Second article is written by Anton Daineko “The Living Icon”, also published in the Orthodox Arts Journal.  In this article, Anton grapples with the issue of what is the criterion used to make  authentic Icons?  This is not a simple or easy question to answer.  He cites examples of Iconographers from the past such as Andrei Rublev, Hilandar and Panselinos in order to visually show the necessary qualities of good Icons.

In this article, he also speaks about the importance of the Iconographer’s direct experience, through prayer, with God.

“The Criterion

Commenting on copying in iconography, Father Igor, a priest from Minsk and himself an icon painter, noted that “There are no icon copies; each icon is a REVELATION”. Naturally, this raises questions: is it even possible to define such a delicate matter as REVELATION, and what aspects should be included under the resultant definition?

It cannot be answered in a few simple words. With some icons, everything is easy: one look at the Redeemer from the Zvenigorod deesis tier, and you feel that it really is a REVELATION. But with most icons, the matter is far more complicated.

Confession of St. Peter Icon
Confession of St. Peter Icon

“It would be appropriate here to recall the words in the epigraph to this article, the Apostle Peter’s reply to Our Lord’s question “Who do you say that I Am?” – “YOU ARE THE CHRIST, THE SON OF THE LIVING GOD“.

Perhaps this line holds the key to understanding much about the Church, including the canonical texts: in those texts, the early Christians saw an image of the LIVING GOD, crucified and raised from the dead. And that is what is most precious in the Church. It is precisely the PRESENCE of the Living God that sets the Christian Church apart from other religions and other communities. And it is precisely this PRESENCE that we can observe in scripture as well as virtually everything else in church life. The icon is no exception in this regard.

The iconic image consists of many simple elements: strokes, stripes, and smudges, while the different colors are obtained by various combinations of minerals and egg yolk. Taken separately, none of these elements carry any artistic – let alone spiritual – meaning in and of themselves. But when these elements come together in a particular combination, a miracle occurs: the strokes, the stripes, and the smudges cease to exist, and we see the Face of the Living God looking directly at us. It is as much of a miracle as the image of the Living God emanating from the simple words of the Gospels’ narrative.”

I suggest again, reading the entire article in order to fully understand the nuances and also to see more examples of the Icons mentioned in the article.  We are so blessed today to have great contemporary Iconographer who are sharing their wisdom and experience to those who are eager to learn.

Enjoy, as we come to the official close of summer, and may God bless all of your Icon writing with His Presence.

Christine Hales

Christine Hales’ Icon Prints 

Icon Classes Taught by Christine Hales